Equal Measures 2030 Data Hub

Goal 12 - Responsible Consumption and Production

SDG 12 and Responsible Consumption and Production

Significant progress has been made to reduce poverty and extreme poverty in recent decades. In 2010, five years ahead of schedule, the world attained the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to cut the 1990 poverty rate in half. Despite this progress, the number of people living in poverty—particularly extreme poverty, where slower progress was made under the MDG agenda—remains high.

Recent estimates place the percentage of the world’s population living on less than $1.90 per day at 10.7 per cent (compared to 35 per cent in 1990). Yet few data disaggregated by sex exist to paint a fuller picture of how poverty affects men and women differently. This is due, in part, to conventional methods of measuring poverty that assume all individuals living under one roof share the same standard of living.

Indicator 1a

Proportion of the population living below the national poverty line

Rationale

National poverty lines provide country-specific benchmarks for households living in poverty and can define the reach of social protection provided by a government. Intra-household gender differences can mean that women and girls feel the effects of poverty most acutely.

Indicator 1b

Proportion of the poorest quintile of the population covered by social assistance programs

Rationale

Social protection can ease the impact of poverty and prevent backsliding on gender equality. Yet women are disproportionately excluded from effective social protection schemes,[1] even though protections narrow gender gaps in poverty rates and provide an economic lifeline for poor women. [2]

[1] UN Women, “Making Social Protection Gender-Responsive,” (New York: UN Women, 2017), http://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2017/making-social-protection-gender-responsive-en.pdf?la=en&vs=2406.
[2] Ibid.

Indicator 1c

The extent to which laws afford women and men equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership

Rationale

Discriminatory legislation and customary laws that govern the control of resources, including land, exacerbate poverty and gender inequality. Women’s inability to hold land titles limits their ability to use it as a source of productive income or collateral for loans, leaving them with less access to opportunities.

Indicator 1d

Proportion of women who report having had enough money to buy food that they or their family needed in the past 12 months

Rationale

Women play an important role in food security in households and communities, as they are more likely to provide and prepare food for families. Yet they also have fewer economic opportunities and access to productive resources than men—in times of scarcity or when food is unaffordable, entire families suffer and women and girls are often the last to eat or eat the least. [3]

[3] WECF, “Gender and Food Security,” (2014), http://www.wecf.eu/download/2015/January/GenderandFoodsecurityguidancedoc2014.pdf.

Complementary datasets

Data for country

Chart title

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Other critical policy issues

Here we highlight other important issues related to this SDG that are not currently reflected in the EM2030 SDG Gender Index as a result of gaps in data availability.

Income and resources

Intra-household income and resource allocation

Land Tenure

Adults with secure tenure rights to land, with legally recognized documentation and who perceive their rights to land as secure (women and men)

Government and poverty reduction

Proportion of resources allocated by the government directly to poverty reduction programmes

Stories

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