Equal Measures 2030 Data Hub

SDG 10: Inequalities


global average 2019 SDG Gender Index score on SDG 10


countries worldwide offer constitutional rights to people regardless of their sexual orientation and gender identity


of the wealth generated in 2017 went to the richest 1% of the world’s population, while the poorest half saw no increase in their wealth

Why SDG 10 matters for gender equality

Widening income inequality within many countries signals that the world’s wealth is captured increasingly by its richest people. While growing income inequality can destabilize societies and harm entire nations, its most acute impact falls on those who are already disadvantaged, including girls and women.

For them, gender inequalities in health, education, work and access to civic participation intersect with multiple discriminations linked to race, ethnicity, caste, religion, location, sexuality, age, class or disability. Indigenous women around the world, for example, face a disproportionate lack of access to healthcare.

Evidence suggests that gender inequality also fuels overall income inequality: the poorest people overall earn less when women earn less. In 2016, UN Women reported that household inequality between women and men may account for up to 30% of all income inequality.

Greater equality, however, is associated with higher growth, better development outcomes and greater income equality. SDG 10 recognizes the linked objectives of gender and social equity in target 10.1 (accelerated income growth for the poorest 40%); target 10.3 (equal opportunities); and target 10.4 (to support greater equality).

Jessica Lomelin / Equal Measures 2030
Jessica Lomelin / Equal Measures 2030

Issues and Indicators

The 2019 SDG Gender Index examines gender focused issues and data under SDG 10 and provides a more complete picture of both the goal itself and its relationship to gender equality. Explore the included issues and indicators below.

Indicator 10a

Palma inequality ratio (income of the richest 10% of the population divided by the poorest 40%)


Countries where women lack equal rights and access to services, and where their outcomes are poorer than those of men, also tend to be countries with large gaps between their richest and poorest citizens.

Indicator 10b

Level of personal autonomy, individual rights, and freedom from discrimination (score)


Countries’ legal and political systems – including their ability to protect personal autonomy, individual rights of all persons, and freedom from discrimination – are crucial foundations for legal guarantees of rights for girls and women.

Indicator 10c

Proportion of ratified human rights instruments regarding migration


Ratification of human rights instruments on migration is a signal of commitment to increasing equity between developed and developing nations, as well as meeting the needs of disadvantaged and marginalised populations—both key tenets of SDG 10 that has critical implications for gender equality.

Data Gaps

Below is an overview of other important gender equality issues related to this SDG that are not currently reflected in the 2019 SDG Gender Index due to data gaps.

Discriminatory laws and policies

Perceptions of discrimination or harassment (by sex)


The power of community-generated data

Despite the Kenya's progressive policy frameworks to improve gender equality and equity, girls and women still face discrimination.

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From evidence to action: focus on GBV

As we mark this year’s 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence campaign, EM2030 seeks to share insights from its Global Advocates Survey on the issue of GBV.

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Lobbying for women´s rights to health and well-being

Aminata has been a passionate advocate for the protection of children since 1990 when she had the opportunity to represent Senegal at the UN Summit in West Africa when she was just 12.

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“Men often do not believe that gender-based violence is “bad” in their own country; being able to provide recent data on the prevalence rate as well as the age groups tends to ‘shut down’ this pushback.”

Respondent to the EM2030 Advocates Survey

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“Attitudes have not changed, women have come out for work, but burden and running family is still there, this is not recognized. We have to strike a balance.”

Respondent to EM230 Policymaker Survey, India, Female

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“We – the GROOTS women – decided to begin generating our localized data based on the specific needs of a specific project. This data is powerful – it is real time and highly contextualized.”

Winrose Mwangi, GROOTS Kenya

Equal Measures 2030 Partners