Equal Measures 2030 Data Hub
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The Gender Advocates Data Hub

The Gender Advocates Data Hub is an online platform showcasing data and evidence, data visualizations, stories, tools and country-, region-, and issue-specific resources for and by gender advocates. It looks beyond the numbers to tell stories about progress within countries and to show the faces and voices of individual women and girls and their unique perspective on progress towards gender equality.

Through interactive data visualizations and regional, goal and country profiles, the Gender Advocates Data Hub enables advocates to easily unpack insights and findings from our 2019 SDG Gender Index. Advocates can visit the Gender Advocates Data Hub to compare country performances across regions, generate an interpretation of global trends, explore the SDGs based on cross-cutting thematic areas of interest, or read about the girls and women who are using data to drive action in their communities.

Utilising Tableau software and data visualization tools, the Gender Advocates Data Hub is geared for advocates working to encourage countries across the world to make faster progress on gender equality laws, policies and budget decisions.

Disclaimer: The maps displayed on the Gender Advocates Data Hub are for reference only. The boundaries, colours, denominations and any other information shown on these maps do not imply, on the part of Equal Measures 2030, any judgment on the legal status of any territory, nor endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. For more information, please contact info@equalmeasures2030.org

Indicators and Issues

The SDG Gender Index measures the state of gender equality aligned to 14 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Below is a list of indicators and issues included in the index and their relevance for gender equality.

Indicator 1a

Proportion of the population living below the national poverty line

Rationale

National poverty lines provide country-specific benchmarks for households living in poverty and can define the reach of social protection provided by a government. Intra-household gender differences can mean that women and girls feel the effects of poverty most acutely.

Indicator 1b

Proportion of the poorest quintile of the population covered by social assistance programs

Rationale

Social protection can ease the impact of poverty and prevent backsliding on gender equality. Yet women are disproportionately excluded from effective social protection schemes,[1] even though protections narrow gender gaps in poverty rates and provide an economic lifeline for poor women. [2]

[1] UN Women, “Making Social Protection Gender-Responsive,” (New York: UN Women, 2017), http://www.unwomen.org/-/media/headquarters/attachments/sections/library/publications/2017/making-social-protection-gender-responsive-en.pdf?la=en&vs=2406.
[2] Ibid.

Indicator 1c

The extent to which laws afford women and men equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership

Rationale

Discriminatory legislation and customary laws that govern the control of resources, including land, exacerbate poverty and gender inequality. Women’s inability to hold land titles limits their ability to use it as a source of productive income or collateral for loans, leaving them with less access to opportunities.

Indicator 1d

Proportion of women who report having had enough money to buy food that they or their family needed in the past 12 months

Rationale

Women play an important role in food security in households and communities, as they are more likely to provide and prepare food for families. Yet they also have fewer economic opportunities and access to productive resources than men—in times of scarcity or when food is unaffordable, entire families suffer and women and girls are often the last to eat or eat the least. [3]

[3] WECF, “Gender and Food Security,” (2014), http://www.wecf.eu/download/2015/January/GenderandFoodsecurityguidancedoc2014.pdf.

Indicator 2a

Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (% of population)

Rationale

Dietary energy consumption refers to food intake that is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement for maintaining an acceptable minimum body size and a healthy life. Women and girls represent 60% of under-nourished people in the world, which can cause stunting, wasting, maternal and fetal health complications, and other health issues for girls and women.

Indicator 2b

Prevalence of obesity among women aged 18+ years

Rationale

Obesity has serious implications for global health and has almost tripled since 1975 [4]. Women’s obesity rates are double those of men in the WHO regions with the widest gender gaps – Africa, Eastern Mediterranean and South East Asia. Obesity rates are linked to women’s access to healthy foods, mobility, access to public spaces, and control of household finances [5].

[4] WHO, “Obesity and Overweight” (Geneva: WHO, 2018), http://www.who.int/en/news-room/factsheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight.
[5] R. Kanter and B. Caballero, “Global Gender Disparities in Obesity: A Review,” Advances in Nutrition 3 (no. 4): 491-498, July 2012, https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002063

Indicator 2c

Prevalence of anaemia amongst non-pregnant women (aged 15-49 years)

Rationale

Anaemia contributes to one-fifth of all maternal deaths worldwide [6]. Anaemia underscores health disparities between and within countries. Affecting nearly one in three girls and women worldwide, it is life-threatening primarily for those living in developing countries.

[6] UN Women, 2018., http://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/sdg-report

Indicator 3a

Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)

Rationale

Safe pregnancy and childbirth are linchpins of women’s health. While maternal mortality has fallen globally since 1990, inequities persist across regions and within countries, with the highest rates of mortality among the poorest girls and women and those living in rural areas.

Indicator 3b

Adolescent birth rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years)

Rationale

Gender inequalities drive high birth rates among adolescent girls, while early childbearing denies them vital opportunities, including education. Early pregnancy is linked to lack of access to reproductive health services and to the harmful practices of child, early and forced marriage.

Indicator 3c

Proportion of women married or in a union (aged 15-49 years) who have had their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods

Rationale

Modern methods of family planning enable girls and women to make choices about their own bodies, avoid unwanted or dangerous pregnancies and space out their births, a practice that reduces the risks for women and babies and increases household investment in each child.

Indicator 4a

Proportion of female students enrolled in primary education who are over-age

Rationale

In many poor and conflict-affected countries there is often a mismatch between a child’s age and their school grade which can affect school success. Children start late, repeat classes or drop out, and girls are likely to drop out or be pulled out of school when they are the wrong age for their grade [7].

[7] UIS, 2016, http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/fs37-leaving-no-one-behind-how-far-on-the-way-to-universal-primary-and-secondary-education-2016-en.pdf

Indicator 4b

Proportion of young women 3-5 years above the secondary school graduation age who have completed secondary education

Rationale

Secondary education is an important enabling conditions for young women. When a girl in the developing world receives at least seven years of education, she marries four years later and has 2.2 fewer children [8]. Secondary education is an important predictive factor not only for poverty reduction, but also the reduction of human rights violations.

[8] Plan Canada, “Girl’s Rights: Fact Sheet” (Toronto: Plan Canada, n.d.), https://plancanada.ca/girl-facts

Indicator 4c

Proportion of women (aged 15-24 years) not in education, employment, or training

Rationale

High rates of young women out of education or employment signal that they struggle to find work due to cultural barriers related to working outside the home, legal barriers that make it difficult to access credit, or structural barriers like limited access to secondary education or vocational training.

Indicator 4d

Literacy rate among adult (aged 15+ years) women

Rationale

Literacy is a fundamental right for women. Despite the fact that literacy is essential for women’s equal participation in society – including engagement with education and healthcare systems – over 400 million women worldwide have insufficient literacy skills, i.e. have difficulty reading [9].

[9] UN Women, “Literacy has empowering effect on women, UN officials say,” (2010), https://news.un.org/en/story/2010/09/350122-literacy-has-empowering-effect-women-un-officials-say

Indicator 5a

Proportion of women aged 20-24 years married or in a union before age 18

Rationale

Child marriage undermines girls’ basic rights, health, education and economic prospects. The practice also harms entire countries: World Bank estimates that ending child marriage would increase national earnings by, on average, 1%.

Indicator 5b

Proportion of women who agree that a husband/ partner is justified in beating his wife/partner

Rationale

Domestic violence and gender-based violence emerge from discriminatory social norms that govern attitudes and behaviours. According to UNICEF “data on attitudes towards wife-beating offer clues on how girls and women are perceived within a given society.” [10]

[10] UNICEF, “Attitudes and Social Norms on Violence”. (New York: UNICEF, November 2017), https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/violence/attitudes-and-social-norms-on-violence/

Indicator 5c

The extent to which there are legal grounds for abortion (score)

Rationale

Safe abortion services are critical to women’s ability to make choices about their own bodies and have agency over their reproductive health. Yet it has been calculated that 6% of the world’s 1.6 billion women of reproductive age live in countries where abortion is banned, and only 37% in countries where it is allowed without restriction [11].

[11] Guttmacher Institute, “Induced Abortion Worldwide” (New York: Guttmacher, 2018,) https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-worldwide

Indicator 5d

Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments

Rationale

Women are critically under-represented in national parliaments. Under- representation of women in national governments is a rights issue and has detrimental effects on society, as bodies that govern citizens’ daily lives miss the perspectives and experiences of half the population. More female lawmakers are associated with improved government accountability, more passed legislation, and increased compromise between political factions.

Indicator 5e

Proportion of ministerial/senior government positions held by women

Rationale

Parity at all levels of government is fundamental to rights of equal representation and to create an enabling environment for equality and good governance. Yet data from the IPU reveal that in 2019, less than 10% of world leaders were women and 20% of government ministers were women [12].

[12] IPU, IPU, “Women in Politics 2017” (Geneva: IPU, 2017), https://www.ipu.org/resources/publications/infographics/2017-03/women-in-politics-2017

Indicator 6a

Proportion of population using at least basic drinking water services

Rationale

Access to clean drinking water from a protected external source (such as boreholes, protected springs and piped water) or in the home (whenever needed and free of contamination) is critical to the daily lives of girls and women, who bear the disproportionate burden of water collection chores that can be time-consuming and detrimental to their health.

Indicator 6b

Proportion of population using at least basic sanitation services

Rationale

Sanitation services are essential for overall development. Yet women in developing countries – particularly the poorest, most marginalised and those displaced by conflict or disaster – often rely on unsafe communal sanitation facilities that expose them to health risks and sexual violence.

Indicator 6c

Proportion of women who report being satisfied with water quality in the city or area where they live

Rationale

Women and girls, as the primary collectors, managers, and users of household water, are most impacted by its quality. Access to clean water close to the home can dramatically reduce women’s workloads and care burden, as it can reduce illnesses caused by contaminated water sources.

Indicator 7a

Proportion of population with access to electricity

Rationale

Men and women have different needs for energy use, and benefit in different ways from increased access to electricity. Electricity is important for household chores managed mostly by women, including food preparation, and for home-based micro-enterprises.

Indicator 7b

Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

Rationale

The use of clean fuels can improve the health of women and children and ease time burdens for girls and women. Girls in households using clean fuels can spend five hours a week on average gathering fuel, compared to 18 hours for households using solid fuels [13].

[13] IEA, 2006, https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/cooking.pdf

Indicator 7c

Proportion of women who report being satisfied with the quality of air where they live

Rationale

For women in low- and middle-income countries, household air pollution is a leading environmental health risk and main cause of noncommunicable diseases like strokes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and heart disease. More than 60% of premature deaths from household air pollution are among women and children [14].

[14] WHO, https://www.who.int/life-course/news/household-air-pollution/en/

Indicator 8a

Wage equality between men and women for similar work (score)

Rationale

Women, on average, earn less than men in nearly every single occupation for which there is sufficient earnings data for both men and women to calculate an earnings ratio. Earning disparities contribute to income inequality, gaps in labor force participation rates between men and women, and inequalities in lifetime earnings, pensions, and savings.

Indicator 8b

Proportion of women recognized as “contributing family workers” (as a % of total female employment)

Rationale

High rates of women’s work in particularly vulnerable roles within the informal economy are linked to women’s lack of access to secondary education and vocational training, barriers to their legal entry into the formal workforce, and a lack of government policies to support their work.

Indicator 8c

Extent of freedom of association and collective bargaining rights in law (score)

Rationale

Workers’ ability to freely associate, form unions, and engage in collective bargaining is particularly critical to women’s abilities to advocate for better working conditions, improve wages, and implement policies that protect them from workplace dangers (including harassment and violence).

Indicator 8d

Extent to which a country has laws mandating women's workplace equality (score)

Rationale

Women face legal barriers to economic participation, including access to ID documents and obstacles to property, getting a job or building credit. The need for more equitable legal frameworks is recognised in SDG target 8.5, though lack indicators on legal reform or targets for women’s economic rights.

Indicator 8d

Proportion of women who hold a bank account at a financial institution

Rationale

When women make their own decisions about how to spend their own money, and when they have more control over their own finances and those of their household, they are more likely to channel resources to food, water, children’s education and healthcare [15].

[15] L. Kienzle, “Helping Women Control Their Financial Lives through Digital Financial Services”, Center for Financial Inclusion Blog, July 26, 2018 (Washington, DC: CFI, 2018), https://cfi-blog.org/2017/06/23/helping-women-control-their-financial-lives-through-digital-financial-services/

Indicator 9a

Proportion of women who made or received digital payments in the past year

Rationale

Digital technologies can transform women’s lives in a myriad of ways, not only enabling women to earn money, but also to access a full range of financial services, control their own earnings, and, increasingly, use remote delivery of government services like healthcare and civic participation tools.

Indicator 9b

Proportion of women who report being satisfied with road quality in the city or area where they live

Rationale

Good access to quality and sustainable infrastructure, including roads, is an essential determinant of women’s mobility and ability to access services, and a basic requirement for local and national economies to prosper.

Indicator 9c

Proportion of women with access to internet service

Rationale

In the digital age, internet literacy has become essential for civic participation and employment in many fields, and information and communications technologies fuel many countries’ economic development. Yet women and girls run the risk of being left behind: in low- and middle-income countries, significant gender gaps exist in internet access and digital literacy.

Indicator 9d

Proportion of women in science and technology research positions

Rationale

As the world transitions to an economy that is increasingly driven by advanced technologies, closing the global gender gap in science, technology, engineer-ing, and math (STEM) education, research, and work is crucial to empowering women and addressing the shortage of qualified workers in these fields.

Indicator 10a

Palma inequality ratio (income of the richest 10% of the population divided by the poorest 40%)

Rationale

Countries where women lack equal rights and access to services, and where their outcomes are poorer than those of men, also tend to be countries with large gaps between their richest and poorest citizens.

Indicator 10b

Level of personal autonomy, individual rights, and freedom from discrimination (score)

Rationale

Countries’ legal and political systems – including their ability to protect personal autonomy, individual rights of all persons, and freedom from discrimination – are crucial foundations for legal guarantees of rights for girls and women.

Indicator 10c

Proportion of ratified human rights instruments regarding migration

Rationale

Ratification of human rights instruments on migration is a signal of commitment to increasing equity between developed and developing nations, as well as meeting the needs of disadvantaged and marginalised populations—both key tenets of SDG 10 that has critical implications for gender equality.

Indicator 11a

Proportion of women who report having had enough money to provide adequate shelter or housing in the past 12 months

Rationale

With increasing urbanization globally, housing affordability is critical to ensuring that cities provide healthy and safe living environments for all citizens. Housing deficits and poor living conditions impose extra burdens on women and girls, who spend more time at home on household and unpaid labor—in polluted urban slums, it is most often women who spend the most time in areas heavily polluted by unclean cookstoves and who wash clothing in contaminated water sources.

Indicator 11b

Annual mean level of fine particulate matter

Rationale

Fine particulate matter, a measure of air pollution, has significant effects on the health and quality of life of all urban residents. It impacts women’s wellbeing, causing a range of respiratory and maternal health issues, for example, which are exacerbated by household pollution from cooking on stoves or fires with polluting fuels.

Indicator 11c

Percentage of women aged 15+ years who report that they “feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where you live”

Rationale

Gender gaps in perceptions of safety show how women around the world – in both developed and developing countries – reflect restrictions on mobility, access to public spaces, transport and their ability to decide where and what hours to work.

Indicator 13a

The extent to which a country delegation at the UN climate negotiations is gender balanced (score)

Rationale

Women’s participation at the UN climate negotiations has improved in recent years, but women remain significantly under-represented [16]. Gender-balanced UNFCCC teams is an issue of women’s basic right to representation—but it is also an important way of bringing the lived experiences of women dealing with climate change into formal climate negotiations.

[16] UNFCC, Achieving the goal of gender balance (Geneva: UNFCC, 2017), https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2017/tp/08.pdf

Indicator 13b

Extent to which a state is committed to disaster risk reduction (Sendai Framework)

Rationale

Countries’ commitment to implementing and funding disaster risk reduction strategies is critical to mitigating the threats posed by disasters. Due to existing gender inequalities, women and girls are most at risk in the detrimental short-term effects of climate change, such as landslides, floods and hurricanes.

Indicator 13c

Level of climate vulnerability (score)

Rationale

Women and girls are more vulnerable than men and boys to many effects of climate change, as they constitute the majority of the world’s poor and are more dependent on natural resources that are threatened by climate change [17].

[17] UN Women, https://www.un.org/womenwatch/feature/climate_change/downloads/Women_and_Climate_Change_Factsheet.pdf

Indicator 16a

Proportion of children <5 years whose births were registered with a civil authority

Rationale

While registration rates for girls and boys are almost equal, lack of registration has a disproportionate impact on girls and women. It denies girls birth certificates that can prove their age and prevent child marriage [18].

[18] J. Lomelin, “How Birth Certificates Help Combat Child Marriage,” December 2, 2014 (London: Girls Not Brides) https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/birth-certificates-help-tackle-child-marriage/

Indicator 16b

Female victims of intentional homicide (per 100,000 population)

Rationale

While most victims of lethal violence are men, violence against women is pervasive and the rates of women killed by intentional homicide vary widely by country. An estimated 35% of women have experienced physical or sexual violence at some point in their lives.

Indicator 16c

Percentage of seats held by women on a country’s Supreme Court or highest court

Rationale

Gender equality on courts is crucial for participatory decision making, ensuring that judicial systems offer and enforce women’s legal protections, and mitigating the discrimination and hostility that many women and marginalised groups face from authorities (for example in reporting sexual violence).

Indicator 16d

Extent to which a state is viewed as legitimate, open, and representative (score)

Rationale

Progress across the entire 2030 Agenda requires strong and accountable government institutions. The general breakdown in law, order, and state institutions (e.g., that occurs during conflict) is particularly dangerous for women, including higher rates of gender-based violence [19].

[19] EM2030, “Data Driving Change,” (2018), https://www.equalmeasures2030.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/EM2030-2018-Global-Report.pdf

Indicator 17a

Social expenditure as a % of GDP (for all types of social assistance programs)

Rationale

Social assistance (like cash transfers, social pensions, school feeding, in-kind transfers, fee waivers and public works) is important for girls and women who have particular economic and social vulnerabilities and bear a greater burden of care within families.

Indicator 17b

Tax revenue as a % of GDP

Rationale

Tax revenues are a critical measure of a government’s ability to provide basic services – including water, sanitation, energy, as well as health and education. In the developing world, adequate financing of public services is a pressing issue with special gender relevance, and taxes in developing countries account for 10-40% of GDP [20].

[20] Caren Grown, “Gender Impacts of Government Revenue Collection,”https://www.shareweb.ch/site/DDLGN/Documents/Gender%20Impacts%20of%20Government%20Revenue%20Collection_Barnett%20and%20Grown%20(2004).pdf

Indicator 17c

Extent to which a national budget is broken down by factors such as gender, age, income, or region (score)

Rationale

Gender budgeting is a key measure of a government’s fiscal commitment to gender equality. Recognising that fiscal policies have gender-related implications, IMF suggests instruments known to have a positive impact on gender equality, such as tax benefits to increase the female labour supply and improved family benefits.

Indicator 17d

Openness of gender statistics (score)

Rationale

Gender statistics and sex-disaggregated data – for example, covering demography, education, health, access to economic opportunities, public life and decision-making, and agency – are vital for responsible policy decisions that improve the lives of girls and women. Yet data that reflect basic aspects of girls’ and women’s lives can be lacking, uncollected, or unpublished.

Equal Measures 2030 Partners